New papers are added to this page as they become available. Check back here from time to time for new papers.

Dr. Merrill's work over the past four decades is summarized in the following paper (Click here for a copy.)

Merrill, M. D. (2008). Reflections on a four decade search for effective, efficient and engaging instruction. In M. W. Allen (Ed.), Michael Allen's 2008 e-Learning Annual (Vol. 1, pp. 141-167): Wiley Pfieffer.

His contributions and consequently the papers included here are grouped by areas of interest:

Graduate Study

Merrill, M. David (2000). Write your dissertation first and other essays on a graduate education. Unpublished Manuscript (Click for copy).

Instructional Design

Merrill, M. D. (1994). Instructional Design Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Check the following URL to locate a copy of this book: http://isbndb.com/d/book/instructional_design_theory.html

Merrill, M. D., Drake, L., Lacy, M. J., Pratt, J., & ID2_Research_Group. (1996). Reclaiming instructional design. Educational Technology, 36(5), 5-7. (Click for copy.)

Merrill, M. D. (2007). The future of instructional design: the proper study of instructional design. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (Second ed., pp. 336-341). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. (Click for copy.)

Teaching Concepts

Tennyson, R. D., Wooley, R. R., & Merrill, M. D. (1972). Exemplar and non exemplar variables which produce correct classification errors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 144-152.

Merrill, M. D., Tennyson, R. D., & Posey, L. O. (1992). Teaching Concepts: An Instructional Design Guide (Second ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Check the following URL to locate copies of these books: http://isbndb.com/d/book/teaching_concepts_a01.html

Component Display Theory

Merrill, M. D. (1994). Instructional Design Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Section 3 Component Display Theory. Chapter 7 The Descriptive Theory (Click for copy). Chapter 8 The Prescriptive Theory (Click for copy). Chapter 9 Lesson Segments based on Component Display Theor (Click for copy).

Elaboration Theory

Reigeluth, C. M., Merrill, M. D., Wilson, B., & Spiller, R. T. (1980). The elaboration theory of instruction: a model for structuring instruction. Instructional Science, 3, 30-31. (Click for copy)

Reigeluth went on to publish a a number of papers on Elaboration Theory.

TICCIT

Merrill, M. D., Schneider, E. W., & Fletcher, K. A. (1980). TICCIT. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Check the following URL to locate a copy of this book:
http://isbndb.com/d/book/ticcit.html

Merrill, M. D. (1980). Learner control in computer-based learning. Computers and Education, 4, 77-95. (Click for copy),

Instructional Transaction Theory and Automating Instructional Design

Merrill, M. D., Li, Z., & Jones, M. K. (1990). Limitations of first generation instructional design (ID1). Educational Technology, 30(1), 7-11.(Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D., Li, Z., & Jones, M. K. (1990). Second generation instructional design (ID2). Educational Technology, 30(2), 7-14. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D., Li, Z., & Jones, M. K. (1991). Instructional Transaction Theory: An Introduction. Educational Technology, 31(6), 7-12. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D., Li, Z., & Jones, M. K. (1992). Instructional Transaction Shells:
Responsibilities, Methods ,and Parameters. Educational Technology, 32(2), 5-27. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D., Jones, M. K., & Li, Z. (1992). Instructional transaction theory: classes of transactions. Educational Technology, 32(6), 12-26. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D., & ID2_Research_Team. (1993). Instructional transaction theory: knowledge relationships among processes, entities and activities. Educational Technology, 33(4), 5-16. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D., & ID2_Research_Group. (1996). Instructional transaction theory: instructional design based on knowledge objects. Educational Technology, 36(3), 30-37. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D. (1998). Knowledge objects. CBT Solutions(March/April), 1-11. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D. (2001). A knowledge object and mental model approach to a physics lesson. Educational Technology, 41(1), 36-47. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D. (2001). Components of instruction toward a theoretical tool for instructional design. Instructional Science, 29(4-5), 291-310. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D. (2002). Knowledge objects and mental models. In D. A. Wiley (Ed.), The Instructional Use of Learning Objects (pp. 261-280). Washington DC: Agency for Instructional Technololgy & Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (Click for copy)

Automating Instructional Design

ID Expert
Merrill, M. D., & ID2_Research_Group. (1998). ID Expert: a second generation instructional development system. Instructional Science, 26, 243-262. (Click for copy)

The Electronic Text Book
Merrill, M. D., & Thompson, B. M. (1999). The IDXelerator: Learning-Centered Instructional Design. In J. v. d. Akker, R. M. Branch, K. Gustafson, N. Nienke & T. Plomp (Eds.), Design Approaches and Tools in Education and Training (pp. 265-277). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (Click for copy)

The Instructional Simulator
Merrill, M. D. (1999). Instructional Transaction Theory (ITT): Instructional Design Based on Knowledg Objects. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (Click for copy)

First Principles of Instruction

Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43-59. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D. (2009). First Principles of Instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth & A. Carr (Eds.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: Building a Common Knowledge Base (Vol. III). New York: Routledge Publishers. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D. (2006). Levels of instructional strategy. Educational Technology, 46(4), 5-10. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D. (2006). Hypothesized performance on complex tasks as a function of scaled instructional strategies. In J. Enen & R. E. Clark (Eds.), Handling Complexity in Learning Environments: Theory and Research (pp. 265-281). Amsterdam: Elsevier. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D. (2007). First principles of instruction: a synthesis. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology, 2nd Edition (Vol. 2, pp. 62-71). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D. (2007). A task-centered instructional strategy. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 40(1), 33-50. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D., & Gilbert, C. G. (2008). Effective peer interaction in a problem-centered instructional strategy. Distance Education, 29(2), 199-207. (Click for copy)

Merrill, M. D. (2009). Finding e3 (effective, efficient and engaging) Instruction. Educational Technology, 49(3), 15-26. (Click for copy)

Applications of First Principles

Thompson_Inc. (2002). Thompson job impact study: the next generation of learning. NETG (Click for copy)

Mendenhall, A., Buhanan, C. W., Suhaka, M., Mills, G., Gibson, G. V., & Merrill, M. D. (2006). A task-centered approach to entrepreneurship. TechTrends, 50(4), 84-89. (Click for copy)

Francom, G., Wolfersberger, M., & Merrill, M. D. (2009). Biology 100: A Task-Centered, Peer-Interactive Redesign. TechTrends, 53(3), 35-100. (Click for copy)

Francom, G., Bybee, D., Wolfersberger, M., Mendenhall, A., & Merrill, M. D. (2009). A Task-Centered Approach to Freshman-Level General Biology. Bioscene, Journal of College Biology Teaching, 35(1), 66-73. (Click for copy)

Frick, T., Chadha, R., Watson, C., Ying, W., & Green, P. (in press). Theory-based course evaluation: implications for improving student success in postsecondary education. Submitted to American Educational Research Journal. (Click for copy)

Frick, T., Chadha, R., Watson, C., Green, P., & Zlatkovska, E. (2008). Improving course evaluations to improve teaching in higher education. Paper presented at the AECT. (Click for copy)

Note: If you are aware of other published applications of First Principles or if you are doing research or development involving First Principles I would appreciate receiving copies of your work for posting to this site. Thank you. dm

 

 

 

 

   
Copyright © 2009 M.David Merrill